高考辅导

高三英语冲刺辅导——翻译与写作

 翻译
一、翻译中易犯的错误
  1. 机械的直译及死译
在场的来宾中有一些外国记者.   (present)
The present guest included a few foreign reporters.
教授此刻正在实验室和他的两个助手一道做试验.   (make)
The professor at the moment is making experiment with his two assistants in the laboratory.
他胸有成竹地赴国外参加竞赛,最后获取了第一名. 
He went abroad to take part in the competition with a bamboo in his heart, and in the end won the first place.
  1. 主次颠倒
她一面走在大街上,一面快乐地唱着.  (while)
While she was singing happily, she walked on the street.
因他多次去过那里,所以主动提出给我们当向导.     (offer)
He had been there many times, offering to be our guide.
  1. 语法错误
我们盼望着能被邀请参加艺术节的开幕式.      (look forward to)
We are looking forward to be invited to attend the opening ceremony of the art festival.
这本书由三个部分组成,它的第三部分是我的老师写的.  (consist)
This book is consisted of three parts, the third part of which was written by my teacher.
维克多跟一个富翁的女儿结了婚.      (marry)
Victor married with the daughter of a rich man.
  1. 未弄清所给词语的含义
这房子好像保养得不错.      (It)
The house seemed to be in good condition.
It seemed that the house was in good condition.
江山易改,本性难移.     (nature)
It is easy to change the nature, but it is difficult to change one’s sex.
It is easy to change the mountains and the rivers, but it is difficult to change one’s nature.
  1. 改变了所给词语的词性
这种中药是很有价值的.      (value)
This kind of Chinese medicine is very valuable.
二、区分及物动词和不及物动词
他们不愿依靠政府救济.      (depend)
They didn’t want to depend the government for relief.
They didn’t want to depend on the government for relief.
我相信你会实现你的愿望的.      (sure)
I am sure you will come true your wish.
I am sure you will realize your wish.
我不知道他为什么在昨天的会议上反对我.      (object)
I don’t know why he objected me at yesterday’s meeting.
I don’t know why he objected to me at yesterday’s meeting.
我们要向雷锋学习,很好地为人民服务.     (serve)
We should learn from Lei Feng and serve for the people well.
We should learn from Lei Feng and serve the people well.
那场交通事故和他的关系很大.   (concern)
That traffic accident concerned with them a great deal.
That traffic accident concerned them a great deal.
三、中译英的几个步骤
  1. 看括号
  2. 越来越多的人意识到遵守交通规则的重要性.    (aware)
More and more people are aware of the importance of obeying the traffic rules.
More and more people are aware that it is important to obey the traffic rules.
  1. 你一旦养成了坏习惯,改掉它是很难的.      (once)
Once you form a bad habit, it is hard for you to get rid of it.
  1. 我们的祖国从来没有像今天这样强大.              (Never)
Never has our motherland been so powerful as she is today.
  1. 定时态语态
当时,那位出租车司机别无选择,只能求助于旅客.    (choice)
At that time the taxi driver had no choice but to turn to the tourist.
不管天有多晚,他从不把今天的事拖到明天.     (put off)
No matter how late it is, he never puts off what must be done today till tomorrow.
应该鼓励学生将课堂上所学的知识运用到实践中去.      (apply)
Students should be encouraged to apply what they have learned in class to practice.
新中国是1949年成立的.     (found)
New China was founded in 1949.
使我们吃惊的是,他竟然不请自到,来聚会了.    (invite)
To our surprise, he came to the party without being invited.
  1. 先抓主干 再添枝叶
每个人都要为自己做的事负责,因此任何人犯法都要受到法律的惩罚. 
Everyone should be responsible for what he has done, and therefore, whoever breaks the law should be punished by the law.
乘车时你有主动为老人让座的习惯吗?
Do you have the habit of offering your seat to the old on the bus/while you are taking a bus.
  1. 核校
 
四、直译和意译
A good medicine tastes bitter
Fire prove gold.
He who risks nothing gains nothing.
No sweet without sweat.
Pride goes before a fall.
The more haste, the less speed.
Action speaks louder than word.
Grasp all, lose all.
He who does not advance falls backward.
He who plays with fire gets burned.
It is no use crying over spilt milk.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
He who laughs last laughs loudest.
小心翼翼       careful
土崩瓦解       collapse
逃之夭夭       run away/flee
触目惊心       frightening
爱莫能助       unable to help
并驾齐驱       keep up with/keep pace with
不可救药       hopeless/beyond cure
不遗余力       spare no effort/do one’s best
胆小如鼠       as timid as a mouse
不由自主       cannot help
惨不忍睹       horrified to see
前所未闻       never heard of/unheard of
称心如意       to one’s satisfaction
愁眉苦脸       have a worried look/pull a long face
吹毛求疵       find fault with
粗心大意       careless
大手大脚       wasteful
发奋图强       work hard
废寝忘食       neglect one’s sleep and meals
分秒必争       seize every minute and second
光明正大       frank and open-hearted
何足挂齿       don’t mention it
赫赫有名       well-known/very much distinguished
胡言乱语       talk nonsense
灰心丧气       disappointed
回心转意       change one’s mind/views
诲人不倦       never tired of teaching others
 
五、两种常考得句型(it和倒装)
那些未曾去过那个小村庄的人很难描绘出它的美丽.
It’s very hard for those who haven’t been to the small village to describe its beauty.
记住这些数字没有用.
It is no use learning these figures by heart.
你帮助她学英语是对的.
It is quite right that you helped her with her English.
我发现很难与那些一贯固执己见的人合作.
I find it hard to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.
他们满以为我会参加他们的晚会.
They took it for granted that I would go to their party.
他很少关心他人的想法.
Seldom does he care about what others think.
我刚进入房间,天就开始下雨了.
Hardly had I entered the room when it began to rain.
这个小孩太顽皮了,使得他那忙于工作的父母常常心烦意乱.
So naughty is the child that his parents who are busy with their work are often terribly upset by him.
只有这样你才能解决问题.
Only in this way can you solve the problem.
只有当战争结束时,他才能回去学习.
Only when the war was over was he able to go back to study.
直到他到了家,他才意识到他丢失了钥匙.
Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost his key.
六、一些常用的特殊句型
1. The more ---, the more句型
站得越高,望得越远.     (stand)
The higher you stand, the farther you can see.
2. 祈使句+and/or引导的句子
赶快,不然你上学要迟到了.  (or)
Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school.
懂得更多的英语单词和短语,你就会发现更容易与他人交际.  (communicate)
Know more English word and expressions, and you will find it easier to communicate with others.
3. with的复合结构
我过去习惯于开着窗户睡觉.      (with)
I used to sleep with the window open.
我们正在上英语课,所有的灯都亮着.  (with)
We are having English class with all the lights on.
工作完毕了,工人们都去洗澡了.  (with)
They all went to take a bath with the work finished.
七、常用的基本翻译技巧
  1. 转换法
中学生,特别是女中学生,很喜欢这些民歌.(popular)
These folk songs are very popular with the middle school students, especially the girl students.
我们非常感激老师为我们提供许多好书.   (grateful)
We are most grateful to our teacher for providing us with many gook books.
由于在中学时成绩优异,她被一所著名的大学免考录取.  (enable)
Her excellent grades at high school enabled her to be admitted to a famous university without examination.
午夜后,他们驱车回家.先过了河,又穿过了这个在酣睡中的古老的城市.       (drive)
They drove home after midnight, over the river and through the old sleeping town.
这台用计算机控制的机器给我们留下了深刻的印象.      (impress)
The machine controlled by the computer impressed us deeply.
  1. 增补法
有必要在一周内学会打字吗?      (necessary)
Is it necessary to learn typing within a week?
废气对我们是有害的,我们应该尽力加以排除.  (remove)
The waste gases are harmful to us and we should try our best to remove them.
  1. 省略法
申请人有工作经验的比没有工作经验的申请人有更多的机会.      (chance)
Applicants who have working experience will have more chances than those who have not.
她的朋友们听到她家中的困难情况后,都主动伸出了援助之手.     (offer)
After her friends heard about her family’s difficulties, they offered her a helping hand.
  1. 主被动转译
大部分的问题已经圆满地解决了.      (settle)
Most of the problems have been settled satisfactorily.
已经决定这些学生将提前毕业.   (ahead of)
It has been decided that these students will graduate ahead of schedule.
写作
一、高考英语作文评分标准
    档次     内容     语言     组织结构
    A     9~10     9~10     4~5
    B     7~8     7~8     3
    C     5~6     5~6     2
    D     3~4     3~4     1
    E     0~2     0~2     0
 
1.评分称准
  (1)内容10分,语言10分,组织结构5分。
  (2)评分时应注意的主要方面:内容要点,应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性及上下文的连贯性。
  (3)评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定所属档次,然后对相应的组织结构档次给予加分。其中,内容和语言部分相加得15分或以上者,可考虑加4~5分,15分以下者只能考虑加0~3分。
  (4)词数少于70,总分最多不超过10分。
2.各档次给分要求
    (1)内容部分
    ①内容充实,主题突出,详细得当。
    ②内容较充实,能表达出作文要求。
    ③内容基本充实,尚能表达出作文要求。
    ④漏掉或未能写清主要内容.有些内容与主题无关。
    ⑤明显遗漏主要内容,严重离题。
    (2)语言部分
    ①具有很好的语言表达能力,语法结构正确或有些小错误,主要因为使用了较复杂结构或词汇所致。
    ②具有较强的语言表达能力,语法结构和词汇的应用基本正确,错误主要是因为尝试较复杂结构或词汇所致。
    ③有一些语法结构和词汇方面的错误,但不影响理解。
    ④语法结构与词汇错误较多,影响了对内容的理解。
    ⑤语法结构与词汇错误很多,影响了对内容的理解。
    (3)组织结构部分
    ①自然地使用了语句间的连接成分,全文流畅,结构紧凑。句子结构多样,词汇丰富。
    ②能使用语句连接成分,全文流畅,结构紧凑。句子结构多样,词汇较丰富。
    ③能使用简单的语句连接成分,全文内容连贯。句子结构有一定的变化,词汇使用得当。
    ④尚能使用语句间连接成分,语言连贯性较差。句子结构简单,词汇较贫乏a
    ⑤缺乏语句间的连接成分,语句不连贯,词不达意。
   
二、高考写作结构
    高考英语写作必须在有限的时间内完成,而且字数不宜过多。因此多数是以三段居多,且要求学生要做到语言精炼,表达到位,切莫用中文的思路去写英语高考作文
    高考英语作文可以分成引言段、主体段和结尾段。第一段要开门见山地导人主题,弟二段是文章的主体段,应采用先总后分的手法,即先亮出主题句,然后再用发展句充实段落。最后在结尾段一定要与引言段首尾呼应。
    当然,不同体裁的文章会有各自不同的写作段落分配。但是以上所说的三段式方法是高中英语写作的核心。
    高考写作.除了遵守一般作文的要求外,还应注意以下几个问题:
  ①选材要切题,选最能说明主题的材料,做到有话可说,要充分利用自己的生活经验。
  ②一定要看清题目要求,把题目要求全部渗透到文章中去。
  ③要用自己熟悉的句型结构和词语。
  ④遇到一时想不起来的词语要用同义或近义词语代替。做到一路有阻另辟它径。
  ⑤因时间所限,因此要快速列出提纲。条理要清楚,文章要一气呵成。
  ⑥最后复查全文,检查格式是否正确,修改病句和错词,看是否满足了题目的各项要求。
  三、高中英语写作常用过渡词
  1.段落、文章起始
  ①first(of a11)               ②first and foremost                 ③to begin with
  ④in the first place         ⑤Generally speaking                ⑥in general
  2.段落、文章结尾
  ①in conclusion             ②in short                                ③in summary
  ④in a word                   ⑤all in all                               ⑥to sum up
  ⑦in brief                      ⑧therefore                              ⑨thus
  ⑩as has been said/mentioned / consequently
  3.表示对比和比较
  ①Compared with…       ②...is similar to...            ③likewise
  ④on the other hand       ⑤however                               ⑥despite=in spite of
  ⑦apart from...          ⑧on the contrary
  4.表示递进
  ①besides  ,               ②furthermore                          ③moreover
  ④in addition                 ⑤what’s more                                ⑥not only...but also...
  ⑦on the top of that    .
  5.表示顺序
  ①first/firstly/first of all  ②second/secondly             ③next
  ④afterwards                 ⑤then                                     ⑥soon
  ⑦later                          ⑧at last
  6.表示让步
  ①even so                      ②however                               ③nevertheless
  ④in spite of/despite    ⑤regardless of                         ⑥after all
四、高考英语写作的要领
1.老师偏爱的作文
   整洁的书写
   适当的篇幅
   清晰地结构
   多样的词汇
2. 高考写作四步骤
   审题——确定文章框架
   提纲——确定内容要点
   写作——确保书写规范
   润色——检查全文
五、几种常见文体的写作
议论文
    议论文是通过议论和说理来表达作者的见解和主张。作者为了使读者同意他的看法,提出若干道理来说服他人。议论文是表明自己的观点、立场、态度、看法和主张的一种文体。议论文有三要素,即论点、论据和论证。论点的基本要求是:观点正确,认真概括,有实际意义,恰当地综合运用各种表达方式;论据基本要求是:真实可靠,充分典型;论证的基本要求是:推理必须符合逻辑
  一、议论文写作要点
  引言段:引用材料观点鲜明开门见山有话直说
  主体段:论点领先论据紧跟黑白分明分析合理
  给尾段:首尾呼应重申观点提出建议展望未来
  二、议论文的写作手法
  1.引言段
  高考英语议论文的引言段其实可以有两部分构成:现象+观点。现象就来自于作文题目。所以学生必须要理解题目中的每句话,把题目中的中文用英语表达出来就能成为不错的开篇。然后再开门见山地亮出自己的观点。
    2.主体段,也就是论证的过程
    要写好议论文,就要讲究好的论证方法。一般说来,有两种方法可以采用,一是逻辑说理,即“晓之以理”;一是从感情上打动他人,即“动之以情”。这两种方法并不是孤立地出现,往往是你中有我,我中有你。除此以外,我们还可以运用引证法(即引用一些名人名言、成语、格言、谚语等作为论据)、例证法(即举一些例子来进行论证)、喻证法(用比喻的方法来论证事理,把深奥、抽象的事理表述得浅显易懂,使文章既生动又形象)、对比论证法(通过对事物的正反两个方面的对比来分析论证,使文章的表达效果更强烈,给人留下深刻印象)。
    在主体段中,务必要牢记应采用先总后分的手法,即先亮出主题句,然后再用发展句充实段落。当然你必须围绕着引言段的观点展开,千万不能让人觉得你的文章段落之间没有衔接。此外,在主体段中要恰当地使用过渡词,有明显的层次感,引领阅读者一层一层地根据你的分论点走向最终你要阐述的观点。
    3.结尾段
    结论,用一、二句话来结束文章,做到首尾呼应。一定要再次澄清你的观点,切记与引言段的观点一致,当
然,建议用不同的词和句法表达一个意思。
  三、议论文中用来表达观点的常用词或句型
  ①I think/believe that…      ②The point is that…         ③In my opinion…
  ④From my point of view…    ⑤As for me…                         ⑥As far as I am concerned…
  ⑦We must recognize that...       ⑧There’s no doubt that…
   
记叙文(夹叙夹议文)
    一、记叙文
    记叙文是通过叙述的手法来记叙某人或某事的一种文体。写记叙文可根据事情发生的时间先后为序,也可以采用倒叙或插叙的写法。为了使文章层次清楚,思路清晰,建议采用第一种方式,即根据事情发生的时间先后为序。
    (一)记叙文的写作要点
    1.记叙文往往要求有明确的写作结构,即在文中体现出事情的起因、经过、结果。在文章的一开始要交待事情发生的背景,如时间、地点、人物等因素。在中间部分应清楚的写出发生了什么事;如何发生,以及发生的原因,必要时还可适当加入冲突,以便制造故事高潮。记叙文的结尾要尽量自然。
    2.记叙文的记叙顺序尤为重要。一般来说,记叙文是按时间顺序来叙述的。最通常的是顺叙和倒叙。顺叙就是按客观事物发生、发展的先后次序进行叙述,一般说来,这种按自然时间顺序来叙述,容易把事情说清楚。倒叙,即先倒叙情节,然后再按时间的发展顺序进行叙述。
    3.记叙文中的时态要注意一致。由于记叙文都是记叙过去发生的事,所以一般使用动词的过去时态;记叙中如用“对话”时,必须注意使用正确的时态及标点符号。还要注意使用适当的连接词,如then, next,   afterwards,meanwhile,finally等,用来表示事件之间的时间关系。
    (二)记叙文的常用写作结构
    第一段:交代时间、地点、人物和活动的简要内容。
    第二段:具体叙述事情发生的内容和过程。
    第三段;适当谈自己的感受、体会,或由该事件引发的经验教训。
    (三)记叙文常用的表示时间关系的过渡词
    at first,later,in the first place,in the second place,after that,first of all,to begin with,at present,so far, to start with,presently,recently,then,lately,next,the moment,meanwhile,in a short while,at last, by and by.before long。from then on,at the same time,all of a sudden,a little later,all at once, finally, up to now,afterwards
    常用的表示空间关系的过渡词    .
    above,across,around,inside,at the back of,behind,near,away from,in the front of,In the east of, in the middle of , on the border of, beside, to the west of,by,under
  二、夹叙夹议文
  (一)夹叙夹议文的写作要点:
  夹叙夹议文是记叙文与议论文相结合,以具体事情的记叙来论证说明个人对某观点的态度、立场或看法。写作叙议文的时候,要注意处理好记叙和议论的关系。切忌记叙洋洋洒洒而不得要领,或是议论三言两语而未明其意,从而导致记叙与议论相对独立,观点和材料相分离。要写好叙议文,就必须准确把握记叙和议论的关系。
    高中阶段的夹叙夹议文多数是以议论文的写作手法开头和结尾,中间穿插一段记叙文,往往起到一个例子的作用。在写作中要注意时态,切忌在一段文字里出现过多的时态。
    (二)夹叙夹议文的范文:
    例1:[2005]高考作文:古人云:“天生我才必有用。”(There must be a use for my talent.)通过描述你生活中的一件事,说明人各有所长,无论才能大小都能成为有用的人。
     There is an old Chinese saying that there must be a use for my talent. I have regarded this as my motto for many years. From my point of view, everybody is good at something. With some useful talent, you will make your contributions to society.
     When I was ten years old, there was an old man living at the corner of X X Road. He didn't have the opportunity to study in school, but he learned how to make wooden furniture. Every time people went to ask him to mend their furniture, he was willing to help them.
      In his spare time, he would make toys with small pieces of wood. Some of them were sold to toy stores and the others were given to us. Whenever I see the lovely toys made by this old man, I remember my happy childhood.
      From this old man, we can see whatever talent you have, you can find your own way of using it. The most important factor is your confidence. If you believe that there must be a use for your talent, you will find it.
例2:2008年发生了很多令人难忘的事。请你描写其中一件最让你感动的事情。
      The year 2008 has left us a lot to think. I will never forget the date May 12th, 2008 when a devastating earthquake hit Sichuan Province. The whole nation was thrown into deep sorrow as the death toll went on rising. At the same time, the courage and compassion of those victims and rescuers touched us greatly. Among them, a boy named Zhang Wanji impressed me most.
      The boy made up his mind to bring the whole family to safety as his house was destroyed and the road was blocked after the disaster. He carried his sister on his back and set out on foot. The journey was tough, but the boy refused to stop. He knew the duty of helping the family was on his shoulder. He had been walking for 12 hours with a strong will----without any food or rest until he finally arrived at a camp. People were shocked and moved and only till then did they realize that he himself was a child.
      The moving story put me to shame. Never before have I considered the part I shall play in supporting my family. How easily 1 will given up halfway. Never will I forget this heroic boy. Never will I forget his strength, his will and his sense of responsibility.
图表作文
图表作文可分为图和表两类。
一、“图”又可分为漫画式和记叙式,漫画式图案片写作多数是在描述图案片的基础上发表感想或分析问题,这一类作文类似于议论文。而记叙式的图片有点像连环画,一般有多幅图片构成,带有故事情节,这类作文就接近于记叙文。当然有些题目还有可能要求根据图片内容发表感想,那就有点像夹叙夹议文了。所以要看清题目的要求。近年来上海高考作文题就经常会考到这种综合类的题目。
例1:根据漫画,请以“烟”为题,用英语写一篇短文,描述图片的内容,并就此发表你的评论。
This is a funny and instructive picture. In the picture, a young man is smoking happily in a factory when he sees a sign which means “No smoking” on the wall. But he finds that the factory is giving off large quantities of heavy smoke which makes him feel very puzzled, “Why does the factory forbid people to s
moke while the factory itself emits so much poisonous smoke?”
Nowadays, many factories know the danger of smoking to themselves and don’t allow people to smoke in the factory. However, they don’t pay any attention to the danger that they cause to the whole society. And they let out lots of polluted smoke which does great harm to our environment.
In my opinion, we could not live comfortable without most of the industrial products, but we could not survive without nature! Therefore, something must be done to prevent the pollution caused by all factories!
 
 
二、“表”主要是指表格类作文,即针对表所给出的内容进行描述并发表自己的观点。表格类作文至少包含描述图表与解释原因两个部分,而当前的图表作文大多还有第三个段落。表格类的作文规律性很强,不想图画式作文那样富于变化。
  图表作文写作技巧
  1.首段的写作
  图表作文有表格(table)、柱形图(bar chart)、饼状图(pie chart)和折线图(diagram),后三种都是属于图表的范畴(chart)。不管是chart还是table,都需要进行描述,一般放在文章的第一部分,长度宜适中。描述数据我们要首先看看是几个变量(A),每个变量有几个数据(B),不妨以A*B表示。
    如果只有一个变量,有三个数据,可以描述如下:
    From the chart we can see clearly that the average number of hours a student spends on Internet per week has increased from less than two hours in 1998 to nearly four hours in 2000,and then to 20 hours in 2004.
    如果是最常见的2*3的情形,可以描述如下:
    From the chart,we can see clearly that in a big city in China,state-owned houses declined from 75%in 1990 to 60%in 1995 and then to 20%in 2000,while private houses rose from 25%to 40%and then to 80%during the same period.
    这里用了while引起从句来突显对比,是一种非常好的办法,如果用两句话来描述,也完全可以。
    如果是1*n(n>3)的情形,将头与尾描述出来即可,比较好的方法就是在句中描述最后一个与第一个相比变化了多少。
    碰到多变量、每个变量多数据的情形,大家应首先进行分类,分成上升、下降两类,或者上升、下降、不变三类,这样问题就迎刃而解了。
2.第二段的写作
    第二段是解释原因的段落。
    主观:I believe that three reasons can account for this phenomenon.
    客观:Several reasons can account for this phenomenon.
    在主题句之后,可以使用连接词分两个、三个或四个方面来写,其中分三个方面来写最为常见。这里就与普通的说明文与议论文一样了,可以由最重要的到最不重要的,也可以由最不重要的到最重要的,也可能平行分布,依具体情况而定。
3.第三段的写作
    第三段直接写结论的情况已基本没有了。如果这篇文章讲的是一个令人担忧的问题,那么这一段写解决办法的可能性最大。
    如果这篇文章讲的是一个好的变化,那么这一段很可能是两种情况——可能写负面的影响或存在的问题,或者写未来趋势或发展方向。
    上述情况均是依提纲而定,提纲中如果没有第三点,那么一般说来,若是问题则写办法,若是好事则写展望,根据具体情况而定。
  二、图表作文写作常用词汇与句型
  1.图形种类
  泛指一份数据图表:a data graph/chart/diagram/illustration/table
  饼图:pie chart
  直方图或柱形图:bar chart
  趋势曲线图:line chart/curve diagram
  表格图:table
  流程图或过程图:flow chart/sequence diagram
  程序图:processing/procedures diagram
  2.常用的描述用法
  The table/chart diagram/graph shows(that)...
  According to the table/chart diagram/graph...
  As(is)shown in the table/chart diagram/graph....
  As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph,figures/statistics show(that)...
  It can be seen from the figures/statistics that...
  We can see from the figures/statistics...
  It is clear from the figures/statistics that...
  It is apparent from the figures/statistics that...
  The table/chart/diagram/graph indicates that...
  三、图表作文范文
  1.近年来,越来越多的人使用电脑,请根据下面的图表,谈谈这一现象的利弊。

Advantages and disadvantages of the use of computers               
 
     Computers have become increasingly popular in the recent years. According to the chart, in 2008, 90% of families owned computers, compared with 55% in 2004 and only 20% 8 years ago.
     Computers benefit people hugely. With the computer, the home will become a library, a school, an office and an entertainment center. All information, from train schedules to discount-price goods, will be as close as the press of a key.
     What's more, with the Internet, the computer will even let us communicate directly with others and with information sources worldwide.
     Despite the increase in efficiency and convenience generated by the computer, the changes it brings could also be adverse. For example, as nearly all activities could be conducted in our comfortable homes, we could never feel any need to leave the house. This would do harm to our health, and even make us live without social interactions----one of the most important things in our lives.
     Unquestionably, we all should consider how we could control the computers, so that it won't control us.
 
附:
历年上海英语高考优秀作文
2000
1. 我最难忘的一课。
2. 具体说明为何难忘。
3. 感想。
 Last winter 1 went to Santa Barbara C.A.U.S. to spend three weeks' time studying with American  high school students. There, I learned a lot of new things and 1 will never forget that Astrology class.
        That morning we went to the local 1nuseiam to have my first class abroad. During the                                                                                                                                            class, we had a discussion on whether we should go on our space project or set all the money aside for other use. With the advanced teaching materials and the experienced teacher we had a general idea of our space achievements and the failure as well. To my surprise, I first realized that with the population explosion, the energy crisis and the pollution, the earth is faced up with more difficulties than ever before. And without space project we couldn't find new energy resources, new food to eat, even new planet to live.
      This class is the: most important one to me, not only because it’s my first class abroad but also because it made me realize how important space exploration is to us.
2001
请你谈谈轿车大量进入家庭后,对家庭,环境和经济可能产生的影响。
         Because of the Reform and opening policy, our country is developing quickly. People are richer today than in the past. And now many people can afford to buy their own cars. But large quantities of families buying ears will have disadvantages as well as advantages.
        To families, cars will make people's life more convenient. They won't have to wait for a bus or walk a long way any more.
         To the economy, producing cars will encourage the development of industry. With a highly developed industry, our country will be more competitive.
       But, on the other hand, large quantities of cars running in the streets will do great harm to the environment. Cars will let out CO2, NO2 and some other harmful gas, most of which can do harm to the atmosphere. So enough attention should be paid to this problem.
       In summary, cars will bring us great benefits but we should also try to avoid its bad effect
at the same time. ( 161)
     
 2002
简要描述图片内容,结合生活实际,就图片的主题谈谈自己的感想。
 
In the picture, we can see that the girl's parents and her grandmother .are helping the girl, which makes it impossible for the girl to ride bicycle on herself. What is more ridiculous, her mother even takes some medicine with her.
    In fact, this is not a picture just for fun. It tells us that. Parents shouldn’t help their children too much. They should let their children be more independent.
   Many parents share the opinion that they must get every .thing ready for their children so that their children could put more emphasis on their study. They all failed to consider that with help of this kind, children won't be able to live their own life without their parents in the future. Nowadays, it is often reported that a certain college student don't know how to wash their socks! How can she compete with others after graduation?
   Love and attention is needed in the growth of a child, but it should never be too much or you'll soil the child and he will accomplish nothing in his life. (179)
 
2003
你的好友因家境一般买不起名牌而闷闷不乐。给他写封信,谈谈你的看法和建议。
收信人:  徐海青
寄信人:  黄平(不可用自己的真实姓名)
写信日期:2003年6月8日
Dear Haiqin
        I'm writing to you to share my opinions on fashion with you for I have just heard that you were unhappy because you couldn't buy something of famous brand.
       I shall say that it is natural for everyone to pay much emphasis on his own image and it is true that fashionable clothes, shoes or something like that will make you more fashionable and eye-catching. However, everyone has own family background, and it is really extravagant for you to buy these. Besides, It will also add to the burden of your parents. 
        What's more, beauty is just skin deep, and there are many things which can make you popular with others except fashion. A great amount of knowledge, noble character and a warm heart will surely ruin you others' respect and admiration..Good qualities is the treasure in your life which is more valuable than anything you wear.            "
       Never judge a book by its cover. I hope that you will remember the saying and become as happy as you used to be. (172)
        
2004
老师要求你负责班级墙报(wall newspaper)工作并征求你的意见。在日记中表述你的决定并谈谈想法。
Today Miss Wang asked me to be in charge of the wall newspaper of our class. I was so glad at that. But now I don’t know whether I should accept the demand or not.
Though in Class 4 for nearly 2 years, I have hardly done anything for it. I think it will be a good opportunity to devote my efforts to the class if I take the job. On the other hand, I’m good at drawing. The job will also provide me with a good chance to show my talent.
However, I know that taking the job means having less time to relax and study. Perhaps it will take me several days to complete an excellent wall newspaper. Perhaps it will affect my studies. Perhaps…
NO! NO! NO! I should believe my ability. I can get everything arranged well: relaxing, study, wall newspaper. It will be an honour for me to do something for my class. I want to be a person who is glad to challenge himself.
Now, I’ve decided. I’ll accept the job. I’ll tell my decision to Miss Wang tomorrow.(187)
                                                                                                                                                                    2005
古人云:“天生我材必有用”(There must be a use for my talent.)请你描述你生活中的一件事,说明人各有所长,无论才能大小都能成为有用的人。
 
There is an old Chinese saying that there must be a use for my talent. I have regarded this as my motto for many years. From my point of view, everybody is good at something. With some useful talent, you will make your contributions to society.
     When I was ten years old, there was an old man living at the corner of X X Road. He didn't have the opportunity to study in school, but he learned how to make wooden furniture. Every time people went to ask him to mend their furniture, he was willing to help them.
      In his spare time, he would make toys with small pieces of wood. Some of them were sold to toy stores and the others were given to us. Whenever I see the lovely toys made by this old man, I remember my happy childhood.
      From this old man, we can see whatever talent you have, you can find your own way of using it. The most important factor is your confidence. If you believe that there must be a use for your talent, you will find it.
2006
下表提供了你所心仪的南、北两所大学的招生信息。通过比较作出选择,并结合个人情况说明理由。
  南方大学 北方大学
学费 8000/年 5000/年
招生人数 20 10
优惠政策 加20分
范文A
     Of the two universities listed above, I prefer the one in the north. The main reason is that the tuition is only 5,000 RMB for the university a year, compared with 8,000 RMB for the university in the south. This makes a big difference for a family like a mine, because my father is peasant and the only breadwinner in the family. Studying at the northern university can save my father big money.
     Another reason I take into consideration is the preference policy the northern university offers. Any candidate who chooses to study there may gain an extra 20 points, which greatly raises the possibility of my being admitted to this university. Of course, it doesn't mean that it will be quite easy to pass the entrance exam because this university has limited the number of qualified candidates to 10 only. However, I have been doing quite well in school, so I believe I can pass the entrance exam with flying colors.
 
范文B
    Compared with the northern university, the southern one is more to my liking. It is true that in terms of tuition the former is 3,000 RMB cheaper than the latter. However, that's not a problem to me because I can work my way through college once I get admitted. What counts is the reputation it has. Once I enter this school, my future career is guaranteed.
    Also, the university in the south recruits 20 new students instead of 10, which means that I will stand a better chance of getting admitted. The competition is very keen, though, as you can see because this university doesn't give candidates any extra points. So all I can do now is study hard, pass the tough entrance exam, and qualify as a student of the university of my choice.
2007
以“礼物”为主题写一篇作文。该文章必须包括以下内容:
1.你送礼物的对象及所送的礼物;
2.该礼物对他(她)可能产生的影响或带来的变化。
 
2008
你班将组队参加学校组织的集体舞比赛(group dancing competition),班长希望大家积极参加。对此谈谈你的看法。
你的文章必须包括以下内容:
•你是否会参加比赛
•你做出该决定的具体理由
  At the news that our class will call on some students to take part in the group dancing competition in school,I feel very excited.As one student in our class, I will take part in the competition. The reasons why I have decided to do so are as follows: 
      The first point is that I'm keen on dance. And I'm one of the members of our school dancing group. If I can take part in the competition, I may take advantage of my dancing skills learnt from school and help other students in my class to improve their dancing skills.
      In addition, the group dancing competition may add a brilliant touch in our school life. Since life in school is always very busy, we may as well make full use of this opportunity to relax ourselves. Furthermore, dance is a kind of physical activity which can benefit our health. Last but not the least, I feel it an honor to represent my class to take part in the group dancing competition. Because of the love of my class, I'm sure to take part in such a good chance to make some contributions for my classmates. I will treasure it as a most happy time in my memory.
 
2009
某海外学校举办英语夏令营,开设了如下课程:园艺(gardening),烹饪(cooking),防身
术(self-defence),护理(nursing)。假如你是王跃华(不可以用自己的真实姓名),写一封申
请信,报名参加其中一门课程的学习。信的内容必须包括:
    ·你感兴趣的课程
    ·你期望从这门课程中学到什么
·为什么想学这些内容
It is said that a summer camp is to be held by your school and a few courses are available to choose from. I am interested in gardening, in that I believe it features my character and personal benefits.
     During the learning period, I expect to gain some unexpected knowledge. A radical technique I'd like to obtain is to know how to tell different species of plants and flowers apart. This helps me to have a clearer outlook of those in my garden. Furthermore, the proper cutting time and frequency to water are some other skills I want learn. A little knowledge concerning choosing suitable soil or the reasonable planting positions will also be a good choice.
     The main reason why I choose gardening is that I want to help my parents with their work in the domestic garden. In addition, I find that we students generally lack the knowledge of gardening, missing a chance to have a word with nature, so that knowing the surroundings is imperative. Last but not least, by attending the course, I will have a meaningful summer vacation, and drowning myself between plants will by all means add a brilliant touch to my life.
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