1. 机械的直译及死译
在场的来宾中有一些外国记者.   (present)
The present guest included a few foreign reporters.
教授此刻正在实验室和他的两个助手一道做试验.   (make)
The professor at the moment is making experiment with his two assistants in the laboratory.
He went abroad to take part in the competition with a bamboo in his heart, and in the end won the first place.
  1. 主次颠倒
她一面走在大街上,一面快乐地唱着.  (while)
While she was singing happily, she walked on the street.
因他多次去过那里,所以主动提出给我们当向导.     (offer)
He had been there many times, offering to be our guide.
  1. 语法错误
我们盼望着能被邀请参加艺术节的开幕式.      (look forward to)
We are looking forward to be invited to attend the opening ceremony of the art festival.
这本书由三个部分组成,它的第三部分是我的老师写的.  (consist)
This book is consisted of three parts, the third part of which was written by my teacher.
维克多跟一个富翁的女儿结了婚.      (marry)
Victor married with the daughter of a rich man.
  1. 未弄清所给词语的含义
这房子好像保养得不错.      (It)
The house seemed to be in good condition.
It seemed that the house was in good condition.
江山易改,本性难移.     (nature)
It is easy to change the nature, but it is difficult to change one’s sex.
It is easy to change the mountains and the rivers, but it is difficult to change one’s nature.
  1. 改变了所给词语的词性
这种中药是很有价值的.      (value)
This kind of Chinese medicine is very valuable.
他们不愿依靠政府救济.      (depend)
They didn’t want to depend the government for relief.
They didn’t want to depend on the government for relief.
我相信你会实现你的愿望的.      (sure)
I am sure you will come true your wish.
I am sure you will realize your wish.
我不知道他为什么在昨天的会议上反对我.      (object)
I don’t know why he objected me at yesterday’s meeting.
I don’t know why he objected to me at yesterday’s meeting.
我们要向雷锋学习,很好地为人民服务.     (serve)
We should learn from Lei Feng and serve for the people well.
We should learn from Lei Feng and serve the people well.
那场交通事故和他的关系很大.   (concern)
That traffic accident concerned with them a great deal.
That traffic accident concerned them a great deal.
  1. 看括号
  2. 越来越多的人意识到遵守交通规则的重要性.    (aware)
More and more people are aware of the importance of obeying the traffic rules.
More and more people are aware that it is important to obey the traffic rules.
  1. 你一旦养成了坏习惯,改掉它是很难的.      (once)
Once you form a bad habit, it is hard for you to get rid of it.
  1. 我们的祖国从来没有像今天这样强大.              (Never)
Never has our motherland been so powerful as she is today.
  1. 定时态语态
当时,那位出租车司机别无选择,只能求助于旅客.    (choice)
At that time the taxi driver had no choice but to turn to the tourist.
不管天有多晚,他从不把今天的事拖到明天.     (put off)
No matter how late it is, he never puts off what must be done today till tomorrow.
应该鼓励学生将课堂上所学的知识运用到实践中去.      (apply)
Students should be encouraged to apply what they have learned in class to practice.
新中国是1949年成立的.     (found)
New China was founded in 1949.
使我们吃惊的是,他竟然不请自到,来聚会了.    (invite)
To our surprise, he came to the party without being invited.
  1. 先抓主干 再添枝叶
Everyone should be responsible for what he has done, and therefore, whoever breaks the law should be punished by the law.
Do you have the habit of offering your seat to the old on the bus/while you are taking a bus.
  1. 核校
A good medicine tastes bitter
Fire prove gold.
He who risks nothing gains nothing.
No sweet without sweat.
Pride goes before a fall.
The more haste, the less speed.
Action speaks louder than word.
Grasp all, lose all.
He who does not advance falls backward.
He who plays with fire gets burned.
It is no use crying over spilt milk.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
He who laughs last laughs loudest.
小心翼翼       careful
土崩瓦解       collapse
逃之夭夭       run away/flee
触目惊心       frightening
爱莫能助       unable to help
并驾齐驱       keep up with/keep pace with
不可救药       hopeless/beyond cure
不遗余力       spare no effort/do one’s best
胆小如鼠       as timid as a mouse
不由自主       cannot help
惨不忍睹       horrified to see
前所未闻       never heard of/unheard of
称心如意       to one’s satisfaction
愁眉苦脸       have a worried look/pull a long face
吹毛求疵       find fault with
粗心大意       careless
大手大脚       wasteful
发奋图强       work hard
废寝忘食       neglect one’s sleep and meals
分秒必争       seize every minute and second
光明正大       frank and open-hearted
何足挂齿       don’t mention it
赫赫有名       well-known/very much distinguished
胡言乱语       talk nonsense
灰心丧气       disappointed
回心转意       change one’s mind/views
诲人不倦       never tired of teaching others
It’s very hard for those who haven’t been to the small village to describe its beauty.
It is no use learning these figures by heart.
It is quite right that you helped her with her English.
I find it hard to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.
They took it for granted that I would go to their party.
Seldom does he care about what others think.
Hardly had I entered the room when it began to rain.
So naughty is the child that his parents who are busy with their work are often terribly upset by him.
Only in this way can you solve the problem.
Only when the war was over was he able to go back to study.
Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost his key.
1. The more ---, the more句型
站得越高,望得越远.     (stand)
The higher you stand, the farther you can see.
2. 祈使句+and/or引导的句子
赶快,不然你上学要迟到了.  (or)
Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school.
懂得更多的英语单词和短语,你就会发现更容易与他人交际.  (communicate)
Know more English word and expressions, and you will find it easier to communicate with others.
3. with的复合结构
我过去习惯于开着窗户睡觉.      (with)
I used to sleep with the window open.
我们正在上英语课,所有的灯都亮着.  (with)
We are having English class with all the lights on.
工作完毕了,工人们都去洗澡了.  (with)
They all went to take a bath with the work finished.
  1. 转换法
These folk songs are very popular with the middle school students, especially the girl students.
我们非常感激老师为我们提供许多好书.   (grateful)
We are most grateful to our teacher for providing us with many gook books.
由于在中学时成绩优异,她被一所著名的大学免考录取.  (enable)
Her excellent grades at high school enabled her to be admitted to a famous university without examination.
午夜后,他们驱车回家.先过了河,又穿过了这个在酣睡中的古老的城市.       (drive)
They drove home after midnight, over the river and through the old sleeping town.
这台用计算机控制的机器给我们留下了深刻的印象.      (impress)
The machine controlled by the computer impressed us deeply.
  1. 增补法
有必要在一周内学会打字吗?      (necessary)
Is it necessary to learn typing within a week?
废气对我们是有害的,我们应该尽力加以排除.  (remove)
The waste gases are harmful to us and we should try our best to remove them.
  1. 省略法
申请人有工作经验的比没有工作经验的申请人有更多的机会.      (chance)
Applicants who have working experience will have more chances than those who have not.
她的朋友们听到她家中的困难情况后,都主动伸出了援助之手.     (offer)
After her friends heard about her family’s difficulties, they offered her a helping hand.
  1. 主被动转译
大部分的问题已经圆满地解决了.      (settle)
Most of the problems have been settled satisfactorily.
已经决定这些学生将提前毕业.   (ahead of)
It has been decided that these students will graduate ahead of schedule.
    档次     内容     语言     组织结构
    A     9~10     9~10     4~5
    B     7~8     7~8     3
    C     5~6     5~6     2
    D     3~4     3~4     1
    E     0~2     0~2     0
  ①first(of a11)               ②first and foremost                 ③to begin with
  ④in the first place         ⑤Generally speaking                ⑥in general
  ①in conclusion             ②in short                                ③in summary
  ④in a word                   ⑤all in all                               ⑥to sum up
  ⑦in brief                      ⑧therefore                              ⑨thus
  ⑩as has been said/mentioned / consequently
  ①Compared with…       ②...is similar to...            ③likewise
  ④on the other hand       ⑤however                               ⑥despite=in spite of
  ⑦apart from...          ⑧on the contrary
  ①besides  ,               ②furthermore                          ③moreover
  ④in addition                 ⑤what’s more                                ⑥not only...but also...
  ⑦on the top of that    .
  ①first/firstly/first of all  ②second/secondly             ③next
  ④afterwards                 ⑤then                                     ⑥soon
  ⑦later                          ⑧at last
  ①even so                      ②however                               ③nevertheless
  ④in spite of/despite    ⑤regardless of                         ⑥after all
2. 高考写作四步骤
  ①I think/believe that…      ②The point is that…         ③In my opinion…
  ④From my point of view…    ⑤As for me…                         ⑥As far as I am concerned…
  ⑦We must recognize that...       ⑧There’s no doubt that…
    3.记叙文中的时态要注意一致。由于记叙文都是记叙过去发生的事,所以一般使用动词的过去时态;记叙中如用“对话”时,必须注意使用正确的时态及标点符号。还要注意使用适当的连接词,如then, next,   afterwards,meanwhile,finally等,用来表示事件之间的时间关系。
    at first,later,in the first place,in the second place,after that,first of all,to begin with,at present,so far, to start with,presently,recently,then,lately,next,the moment,meanwhile,in a short while,at last, by and by.before long。from then on,at the same time,all of a sudden,a little later,all at once, finally, up to now,afterwards
    常用的表示空间关系的过渡词    .
    above,across,around,inside,at the back of,behind,near,away from,in the front of,In the east of, in the middle of , on the border of, beside, to the west of,by,under
    例1:[2005]高考作文:古人云:“天生我才必有用。”(There must be a use for my talent.)通过描述你生活中的一件事,说明人各有所长,无论才能大小都能成为有用的人。
     There is an old Chinese saying that there must be a use for my talent. I have regarded this as my motto for many years. From my point of view, everybody is good at something. With some useful talent, you will make your contributions to society.
     When I was ten years old, there was an old man living at the corner of X X Road. He didn't have the opportunity to study in school, but he learned how to make wooden furniture. Every time people went to ask him to mend their furniture, he was willing to help them.
      In his spare time, he would make toys with small pieces of wood. Some of them were sold to toy stores and the others were given to us. Whenever I see the lovely toys made by this old man, I remember my happy childhood.
      From this old man, we can see whatever talent you have, you can find your own way of using it. The most important factor is your confidence. If you believe that there must be a use for your talent, you will find it.
      The year 2008 has left us a lot to think. I will never forget the date May 12th, 2008 when a devastating earthquake hit Sichuan Province. The whole nation was thrown into deep sorrow as the death toll went on rising. At the same time, the courage and compassion of those victims and rescuers touched us greatly. Among them, a boy named Zhang Wanji impressed me most.
      The boy made up his mind to bring the whole family to safety as his house was destroyed and the road was blocked after the disaster. He carried his sister on his back and set out on foot. The journey was tough, but the boy refused to stop. He knew the duty of helping the family was on his shoulder. He had been walking for 12 hours with a strong will----without any food or rest until he finally arrived at a camp. People were shocked and moved and only till then did they realize that he himself was a child.
      The moving story put me to shame. Never before have I considered the part I shall play in supporting my family. How easily 1 will given up halfway. Never will I forget this heroic boy. Never will I forget his strength, his will and his sense of responsibility.
This is a funny and instructive picture. In the picture, a young man is smoking happily in a factory when he sees a sign which means “No smoking” on the wall. But he finds that the factory is giving off large quantities of heavy smoke which makes him feel very puzzled, “Why does the factory forbid people to s
moke while the factory itself emits so much poisonous smoke?”
Nowadays, many factories know the danger of smoking to themselves and don’t allow people to smoke in the factory. However, they don’t pay any attention to the danger that they cause to the whole society. And they let out lots of polluted smoke which does great harm to our environment.
In my opinion, we could not live comfortable without most of the industrial products, but we could not survive without nature! Therefore, something must be done to prevent the pollution caused by all factories!
  图表作文有表格(table)、柱形图(bar chart)、饼状图(pie chart)和折线图(diagram),后三种都是属于图表的范畴(chart)。不管是chart还是table,都需要进行描述,一般放在文章的第一部分,长度宜适中。描述数据我们要首先看看是几个变量(A),每个变量有几个数据(B),不妨以A*B表示。
    From the chart we can see clearly that the average number of hours a student spends on Internet per week has increased from less than two hours in 1998 to nearly four hours in 2000,and then to 20 hours in 2004.
    From the chart,we can see clearly that in a big city in China,state-owned houses declined from 75%in 1990 to 60%in 1995 and then to 20%in 2000,while private houses rose from 25%to 40%and then to 80%during the same period.
    主观:I believe that three reasons can account for this phenomenon.
    客观:Several reasons can account for this phenomenon.
  泛指一份数据图表:a data graph/chart/diagram/illustration/table
  饼图:pie chart
  直方图或柱形图:bar chart
  趋势曲线图:line chart/curve diagram
  流程图或过程图:flow chart/sequence diagram
  程序图:processing/procedures diagram
  The table/chart diagram/graph shows(that)...
  According to the table/chart diagram/graph...
  As(is)shown in the table/chart diagram/graph....
  As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph,figures/statistics show(that)...
  It can be seen from the figures/statistics that...
  We can see from the figures/statistics...
  It is clear from the figures/statistics that...
  It is apparent from the figures/statistics that...
  The table/chart/diagram/graph indicates that...

Advantages and disadvantages of the use of computers               
     Computers have become increasingly popular in the recent years. According to the chart, in 2008, 90% of families owned computers, compared with 55% in 2004 and only 20% 8 years ago.
     Computers benefit people hugely. With the computer, the home will become a library, a school, an office and an entertainment center. All information, from train schedules to discount-price goods, will be as close as the press of a key.
     What's more, with the Internet, the computer will even let us communicate directly with others and with information sources worldwide.
     Despite the increase in efficiency and convenience generated by the computer, the changes it brings could also be adverse. For example, as nearly all activities could be conducted in our comfortable homes, we could never feel any need to leave the house. This would do harm to our health, and even make us live without social interactions----one of the most important things in our lives.
     Unquestionably, we all should consider how we could control the computers, so that it won't control us.
1. 我最难忘的一课。
2. 具体说明为何难忘。
3. 感想。
 Last winter 1 went to Santa Barbara C.A.U.S. to spend three weeks' time studying with American  high school students. There, I learned a lot of new things and 1 will never forget that Astrology class.
        That morning we went to the local 1nuseiam to have my first class abroad. During the                                                                                                                                            class, we had a discussion on whether we should go on our space project or set all the money aside for other use. With the advanced teaching materials and the experienced teacher we had a general idea of our space achievements and the failure as well. To my surprise, I first realized that with the population explosion, the energy crisis and the pollution, the earth is faced up with more difficulties than ever before. And without space project we couldn't find new energy resources, new food to eat, even new planet to live.
      This class is the: most important one to me, not only because it’s my first class abroad but also because it made me realize how important space exploration is to us.
         Because of the Reform and opening policy, our country is developing quickly. People are richer today than in the past. And now many people can afford to buy their own cars. But large quantities of families buying ears will have disadvantages as well as advantages.
        To families, cars will make people's life more convenient. They won't have to wait for a bus or walk a long way any more.
         To the economy, producing cars will encourage the development of industry. With a highly developed industry, our country will be more competitive.
       But, on the other hand, large quantities of cars running in the streets will do great harm to the environment. Cars will let out CO2, NO2 and some other harmful gas, most of which can do harm to the atmosphere. So enough attention should be paid to this problem.
       In summary, cars will bring us great benefits but we should also try to avoid its bad effect
at the same time. ( 161)
In the picture, we can see that the girl's parents and her grandmother .are helping the girl, which makes it impossible for the girl to ride bicycle on herself. What is more ridiculous, her mother even takes some medicine with her.
    In fact, this is not a picture just for fun. It tells us that. Parents shouldn’t help their children too much. They should let their children be more independent.
   Many parents share the opinion that they must get every .thing ready for their children so that their children could put more emphasis on their study. They all failed to consider that with help of this kind, children won't be able to live their own life without their parents in the future. Nowadays, it is often reported that a certain college student don't know how to wash their socks! How can she compete with others after graduation?
   Love and attention is needed in the growth of a child, but it should never be too much or you'll soil the child and he will accomplish nothing in his life. (179)
收信人:  徐海青
寄信人:  黄平(不可用自己的真实姓名)
Dear Haiqin
        I'm writing to you to share my opinions on fashion with you for I have just heard that you were unhappy because you couldn't buy something of famous brand.
       I shall say that it is natural for everyone to pay much emphasis on his own image and it is true that fashionable clothes, shoes or something like that will make you more fashionable and eye-catching. However, everyone has own family background, and it is really extravagant for you to buy these. Besides, It will also add to the burden of your parents. 
        What's more, beauty is just skin deep, and there are many things which can make you popular with others except fashion. A great amount of knowledge, noble character and a warm heart will surely ruin you others' respect and admiration..Good qualities is the treasure in your life which is more valuable than anything you wear.            "
       Never judge a book by its cover. I hope that you will remember the saying and become as happy as you used to be. (172)
老师要求你负责班级墙报(wall newspaper)工作并征求你的意见。在日记中表述你的决定并谈谈想法。
Today Miss Wang asked me to be in charge of the wall newspaper of our class. I was so glad at that. But now I don’t know whether I should accept the demand or not.
Though in Class 4 for nearly 2 years, I have hardly done anything for it. I think it will be a good opportunity to devote my efforts to the class if I take the job. On the other hand, I’m good at drawing. The job will also provide me with a good chance to show my talent.
However, I know that taking the job means having less time to relax and study. Perhaps it will take me several days to complete an excellent wall newspaper. Perhaps it will affect my studies. Perhaps…
NO! NO! NO! I should believe my ability. I can get everything arranged well: relaxing, study, wall newspaper. It will be an honour for me to do something for my class. I want to be a person who is glad to challenge himself.
Now, I’ve decided. I’ll accept the job. I’ll tell my decision to Miss Wang tomorrow.(187)
古人云:“天生我材必有用”(There must be a use for my talent.)请你描述你生活中的一件事,说明人各有所长,无论才能大小都能成为有用的人。
There is an old Chinese saying that there must be a use for my talent. I have regarded this as my motto for many years. From my point of view, everybody is good at something. With some useful talent, you will make your contributions to society.
     When I was ten years old, there was an old man living at the corner of X X Road. He didn't have the opportunity to study in school, but he learned how to make wooden furniture. Every time people went to ask him to mend their furniture, he was willing to help them.
      In his spare time, he would make toys with small pieces of wood. Some of them were sold to toy stores and the others were given to us. Whenever I see the lovely toys made by this old man, I remember my happy childhood.
      From this old man, we can see whatever talent you have, you can find your own way of using it. The most important factor is your confidence. If you believe that there must be a use for your talent, you will find it.
  南方大学 北方大学
学费 8000/年 5000/年
招生人数 20 10
优惠政策 加20分
     Of the two universities listed above, I prefer the one in the north. The main reason is that the tuition is only 5,000 RMB for the university a year, compared with 8,000 RMB for the university in the south. This makes a big difference for a family like a mine, because my father is peasant and the only breadwinner in the family. Studying at the northern university can save my father big money.
     Another reason I take into consideration is the preference policy the northern university offers. Any candidate who chooses to study there may gain an extra 20 points, which greatly raises the possibility of my being admitted to this university. Of course, it doesn't mean that it will be quite easy to pass the entrance exam because this university has limited the number of qualified candidates to 10 only. However, I have been doing quite well in school, so I believe I can pass the entrance exam with flying colors.
    Compared with the northern university, the southern one is more to my liking. It is true that in terms of tuition the former is 3,000 RMB cheaper than the latter. However, that's not a problem to me because I can work my way through college once I get admitted. What counts is the reputation it has. Once I enter this school, my future career is guaranteed.
    Also, the university in the south recruits 20 new students instead of 10, which means that I will stand a better chance of getting admitted. The competition is very keen, though, as you can see because this university doesn't give candidates any extra points. So all I can do now is study hard, pass the tough entrance exam, and qualify as a student of the university of my choice.
你班将组队参加学校组织的集体舞比赛(group dancing competition),班长希望大家积极参加。对此谈谈你的看法。
  At the news that our class will call on some students to take part in the group dancing competition in school,I feel very excited.As one student in our class, I will take part in the competition. The reasons why I have decided to do so are as follows: 
      The first point is that I'm keen on dance. And I'm one of the members of our school dancing group. If I can take part in the competition, I may take advantage of my dancing skills learnt from school and help other students in my class to improve their dancing skills.
      In addition, the group dancing competition may add a brilliant touch in our school life. Since life in school is always very busy, we may as well make full use of this opportunity to relax ourselves. Furthermore, dance is a kind of physical activity which can benefit our health. Last but not the least, I feel it an honor to represent my class to take part in the group dancing competition. Because of the love of my class, I'm sure to take part in such a good chance to make some contributions for my classmates. I will treasure it as a most happy time in my memory.
It is said that a summer camp is to be held by your school and a few courses are available to choose from. I am interested in gardening, in that I believe it features my character and personal benefits.
     During the learning period, I expect to gain some unexpected knowledge. A radical technique I'd like to obtain is to know how to tell different species of plants and flowers apart. This helps me to have a clearer outlook of those in my garden. Furthermore, the proper cutting time and frequency to water are some other skills I want learn. A little knowledge concerning choosing suitable soil or the reasonable planting positions will also be a good choice.
     The main reason why I choose gardening is that I want to help my parents with their work in the domestic garden. In addition, I find that we students generally lack the knowledge of gardening, missing a chance to have a word with nature, so that knowing the surroundings is imperative. Last but not least, by attending the course, I will have a meaningful summer vacation, and drowning myself between plants will by all means add a brilliant touch to my life.